中国的亚太安全合作政策

  China’s Policies on Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation

  中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

  The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

  2017年1月

  January 2017

  目录

  Contents

  前言

  Preface

  一、中国对亚太安全合作的政策主张

  I. China’s Policies and Positions on Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation

  二、中国的亚太安全理念

  II. China’s Security Vision for the Asia-Pacific Region

  三、中国与地区其他主要国家的关系

  III. China’s Relations with Other Major Asia-Pacific Countries

  四、中国在地区热点问题上的立场和主张

  IV. China’s Positions and Views on Regional Hotspot Issues

  五、中国参与亚太地区主要多边机制

  V. China’s Participation in Major Multilateral Mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific Region

  六、中国参与地区非传统安全合作

  VI. China’s Participation in Regional Non-Traditional Security Cooperation

  结束语

  Conclusion

  前言

  Preface

  亚洲和太平洋地区地域广阔,国家众多,拥有全世界60%的人口,经济和贸易总量分别占全球总额的近六成和一半,在世界格局中具有重要战略地位。近年来,亚太地区的发展日益引人注目,成为全球最具发展活力和潜力的地区,地区国家进一步加大对亚太地区的重视和投入。随着国际关系格局的深刻调整,亚太地区格局也在发生重要深刻变化。

  The Asia-Pacific region covers a vast area with numerous countries and 60 percent of the world’s population. Its economic and trade volumes take up nearly 60 percent and half of the world’s total, respectively. It has an important strategic position in the world. In recent years, the development of the Asia-Pacific region has increasingly caught people’s attention. It has become the most dynamic region with the strongest potential in the world. All parties are attaching greater importance to and investing more in this region. With the profound adjustment of the pattern of international relations, the regional situation of the Asia-Pacific area is also undergoing profound changes.

  


  中国一直致力于维护亚太地区的和平与稳定,坚持走和平发展道路,坚持互利共赢的开放战略,坚持在和平共处五项原则基础上同所有国家发展友好合作,全面参与区域合作,积极应对传统安全和非传统安全挑战,为推动建设持久和平、共同繁荣的亚太不懈努力。

  China is committed to promoting peace and stability in this region. It follows the path of peaceful development and the mutually beneficial strategy of opening-up, and pursues friendly cooperation with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. It has participated in regional cooperation in an all-round way and taken active steps in response to both traditional and non-traditional security challenges, contributing to lasting peace and common prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region.


  一、中国对亚太安全合作的政策主张


  I. China’s Policies and Positions on Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation

  当前,亚太地区形势总体稳定向好,和平与发展的势头依然强劲,是当前全球格局中的稳定板块。促和平、求稳定、谋发展是多数国家的战略取向和共同诉求。亚太国家间政治互信不断增强,大国互动频繁并总体保持合作态势。通过对话协商处理分歧和争端是各国主要政策取向,地区热点和争议问题基本可控。亚太经济保持平稳较快增长,处于世界经济增长“高地”。区域一体化加速推进,次区域合作蓬勃发展。各类自贸安排稳步推进,互联互通建设进入新一轮活跃期。同时,亚太地区仍面临诸多不稳定、不确定因素。朝鲜半岛问题复杂敏感,阿富汗和解进程进展缓慢,领土主权和海洋权益争端继续发酵。一些国家加大在亚太军事部署,个别国家推动军事松绑,部分国家经历复杂政治社会转型,恐怖主义、自然灾害、跨国犯罪等非传统安全威胁日益突出。受自身结构性问题和外部经济金融风险等影响,亚洲经济仍面临较大下行压力。

  Currently, the situation in the Asia-Pacific region is stable on the whole, with a strong momentum for peace and development. The Asia-Pacific region is a stable part of the global landscape. To promote peace and seek stability and development is the strategic goal and common aspiration of most countries in the region. Political mutual trust among countries has been strengthened, and major countries have frequently interacted and cooperated with one another. To address differences and disputes through negotiation and consultation is the major policy of countries in the region. Regional hotspot issues and disputes are basically under control. The region has secured steady and relatively fast growth, continuing to lead the world in this respect. Regional integration has gathered pace, with booming sub-regional cooperation. Free trade arrangements in various forms have made steady progress, and a new phase has emerged for dynamic connectivity building. However, the Asia-Pacific region still faces multiple destabilizing and uncertain factors. The nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula is complex and sensitive; the reconciliation process in Afghanistan remains slow; and disputes over territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests continue to unfold. Some countries are increasing their military deployment in the region, certain country seeks to shake off military constraints, and some countries are undergoing complex political and social transformations. Non-traditional security threats such as terrorism, natural disasters and transnational crimes have become more prominent. Asia’s economy still faces significant downward pressure as a result of its structural problems as well as external economic and financial risks.


  作为亚太大家庭中的重要一员,中国深知自身和平发展与亚太未来息息相关,一直以来以促进亚太繁荣稳定为己任。中国愿同地区国家秉持合作共赢理念,扎实推进安全对话合作,共同维护亚太和平与稳定的良好局面。

  As an important member of the Asia-Pacific family, China is fully aware that its peaceful development is closely linked with the future of the region. China has all along taken the advancement of regional prosperity and stability as its own responsibility. China is ready to pursue security through dialogue and cooperation in the spirit of working together for mutually beneficial results, and safeguard peace and stability jointly with other countries in the region.

       

  第一,促进共同发展,夯实亚太和平稳定的经济基础。扩大经济利益融合是国家间关系的重要基础,实现共同发展是维护和平稳定的根本保障,是解决各类安全问题的“总钥匙”。亚太地区在经济合作方面已取得不少成果,应在此基础上加快经济一体化进程,继续推进自贸区建设和互联互通,促进经济社会全面发展。落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程,缩小区内发展差距,让各国和各阶层民众共享发展红利,拉紧各国利益纽带。

  First, we should promote common development and lay a solid economic foundation for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. To enhance the convergence of economic interests is an important basis for sound state-to-state relations. Common development provides a fundamental safeguard for peace and stability, and holds the key to various security issues. Considerable achievements have been made in economic cooperation. On this basis, we should accelerate the process of economic integration and continue to advance the building of free trade areas and connectivity as well as comprehensive economic and social development. We should implement the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and narrow the developmental gap in the region, so that all countries and people of all social strata will enjoy the dividends of development, and the interests of countries will be more closely intertwined.

  


  着眼于共同发展,中国提出并积极推动“一带一路”建设,倡议成立了亚洲基础设施投资银行和丝路基金。中国欢迎各国继续积极参与,实现互利共赢。

  Focusing on common development, China has put forward and actively promoted the Belt and Road Initiative and initiated the establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Silk Road Fund. We welcome continued participation by all countries for mutually beneficial outcomes.


  第二,推进伙伴关系建设,筑牢亚太和平稳定的政治根基。亚太地区国家具有独特的多样性。志同道合是伙伴,求同存异同样可以成为伙伴,关键在于平等相待、合作共赢。亚太大国对维护地区和平与发展至关重要,应客观理性看待他方战略意图,抛弃冷战思维,相互尊重正当合理的利益关切,加强良性互动,合作应对地区挑战。中小国家没有必要也不应在大国之间选边站队。地区国家应共同努力,走“对话而不对抗,结伴而不结盟”的新路,共建互信、包容、合作、共赢的亚太伙伴关系。

  Second, we should promote the building of partnerships and strengthen the political foundation for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific countries have unique diversities. Countries may become partners when they have the same values and ideals, but they can also be partners if they seek common ground while reserving differences. The key is to remain committed to treating each other as equals and carrying out mutually beneficial cooperation. How major countries in the Asia-Pacific region get along with each other is critical for maintaining regional peace and development. Major countries should treat the strategic intentions of others in an objective and rational manner, reject the Cold War mentality, respect others’ legitimate interests and concerns, strengthen positive interactions and respond to challenges with concerted efforts. Small and medium-sized countries need not and should not take sides among big countries. All countries should make joint efforts to pursue a new path of dialogue instead of confrontation and pursue partnerships rather than alliances, and build an Asia-Pacific partnership featuring mutual trust, inclusiveness and mutually beneficial cooperation.


  中国提出构建以合作共赢为核心的新型国际关系,致力于同各国、各地区组织建立不同形式的伙伴关系。中国致力于与美国构建不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的新型大国关系,与俄罗斯不断深化全面战略协作伙伴关系,与印度积极构建更加紧密的发展伙伴关系,推动中日关系持续改善。中国领导人多次在不同场合阐述命运共同体理念,积极推动构建澜沧江—湄公河国家命运共同体和中国—东盟命运共同体,推动亚洲命运共同体和亚太命运共同体建设。

  China calls for the building of a new model of international relations centered on mutually beneficial cooperation. China is committed to building partnerships in different forms with all countries and regional organizations. China has committed itself to working with the United States to build a new model of major-country relations featuring non-conflict, non-confrontation, mutual respect, and mutually beneficial cooperation. China is committed to deepening its comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination with Russia and establishing a closer partnership with India. It is also pushing for the improvement of its relations with Japan. Chinese leaders have repeatedly elaborated on the concept of a community of shared future on many different occasions. China is working to construct a community of shared future for countries along the Lancang-Mekong River and between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as well as in Asia and the Asia-Pacific area as a whole.


  第三,完善现有地区多边机制,巩固亚太和平稳定的框架支撑。地区国家应坚持多边主义,反对单边主义,继续支持地区多边安全机制发展,推动相关机制密切协调配合,为增进相互理解与互信、扩大安全对话交流与合作发挥更大作用。

  Third, we should improve the existing regional multilateral mechanisms and strengthen the framework for supporting peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. All parties concerned should adhere to multilateralism, oppose unilateralism, further support the development of regional multilateral security mechanisms, push for close coordination between relevant mechanisms, and play a bigger role in enhancing mutual understanding and trust, and expanding exchanges and cooperation in the field of security dialogues.

  中国致力于推进地区安全机制建设,同有关国家共同发起成立上海合作组织和六方会谈,搭建香山论坛平台,建立中国—东盟执法安全合作部长级对话机制、筹建澜沧江—湄公河综合执法安全合作中心,积极支持亚洲相互协作与信任措施会议加强能力和机制建设,参与东盟主导的多边安全对话合作机制。中国在各个地区机制下提出一系列非传统安全领域合作倡议,有力推动了相关领域交流与合作。中国将承担更多国际地区安全责任,为亚太地区乃至世界提供更多公共安全产品。


  Committed to pushing forward the building of regional security mechanisms, China initiated with relevant countries the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Six-Party Talks, Xiangshan Forum, China-ASEAN Ministerial Dialogue on Law Enforcement and Security Cooperation, and Center for Comprehensive Law Enforcement and Security Cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong Sub-Region. China has actively supported the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) in its capacity and institution building, and participated in the ASEAN-led multilateral security dialogues and cooperation mechanisms. Within various regional mechanisms, China has made a large number of cooperation proposals in the field of non-traditional security, which have strongly promoted relevant exchanges and cooperation. China will shoulder greater responsibilities for regional and global security, and provide more public security services to the Asia-Pacific region and the world at large.

        

  第四,推动规则建设,完善亚太和平稳定的制度保障。国家之间和平相处需要秉持法治精神,遵守以《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则为基础的国际关系准则,以普遍接受、公正合理的规则为保障。国际和地区规则应由各国共商共建共享,不能由哪一个国家说了算,不能把个别国家的规则当作“国际规则”,更不能允许个别国家打着所谓“法治”的幌子侵犯别国合法权益。

  Fourth, we should promote the rule-setting and improve the institutional safeguards for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. To live together in peace, countries should follow the spirit of the rule of law, the international norms based on the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and the widely-recognized rules of fairness and justice. International and regional rules should be discussed, formulated and observed by all countries concerned, rather than being dictated by any particular country. Rules of individual countries should not automatically become “international rules,” still less should individual countries be allowed to violate the lawful rights and interests of others under the pretext of “rule of law.”

  


  中国是国际法治和地区规则秩序的坚定维护者和积极建设者。为在国际关系中践行法治精神,中国同印度、缅甸于1954年共同倡导了和平共处五项原则。中国迄今已加入几乎所有政府间国际组织和400多项国际多边条约。中国致力于维护地区海上安全和秩序,加强机制规则建设。2014年中国推动在华举行的西太平洋海军论坛年会通过《海上意外相遇规则》。中国将与东盟国家继续全面有效落实《南海各方行为宣言》,争取在协商一致基础上早日达成“南海行为准则”。此外,中国还积极参与网络空间、外空等国际新疆域规则的协商,推动制定普遍接受、公正合理的国际规则。

  China has firmly upheld and actively contributed to international law, and regional rules and norms. To practice the rule of law in international relations, China, together with India and Myanmar, initiated the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence in 1954. China has acceded to almost all inter-governmental international organizations and more than 400 international multilateral treaties so far. China is committed to upholding regional maritime security and order, and enhancing the building of institutions and rules. In 2014, China presided over the adoption of the updated Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea at the Western Pacific Naval Symposium held in China. China and ASEAN countries will continue to fully and effectively implement the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) and strive for the early conclusion of a Code of Conduct (COC) on the basis of consensus in the framework of the DOC. In addition, China has taken an active part in consultations on setting rules in new areas such as cyberspace and outer space, so as to contribute to the formulation of widely accepted fair and equitable international rules.


  第五,密切军事交流合作,增强亚太和平稳定的保障力量。中国面临多元复杂的安全威胁和挑战,维护国家统一和领土完整的任务艰巨繁重。建设与中国国际地位相称、与国家安全和发展利益相适应的巩固国防和强大军队,是中国现代化建设的战略任务,也是中国实现和平发展的坚强保障。中国武装力量为国家发展提供了安全保障和战略支撑,也为维护世界和平与地区稳定作出了积极贡献。

  Fifth, we should intensify military exchanges and cooperation to offer more guarantees for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. China faces diverse and complex security threats and challenges, as well as the arduous task of safeguarding national unity and territorial integrity. Building strong national defence and armed forces that are commensurate with China’s international standing and its security and development interests is a strategic task in China’s modernization drive, and provides a strong guarantee for its peaceful development. China’s armed forces provide security and strategic support for the country’s development and also make positive contributions to the maintenance of world peace and regional stability.


  中国武装力量是国际安全合作的倡导者、推动者和参与者,坚持和平共处五项原则,全方位开展对外军事交往,发展不结盟、不对抗、不针对第三方的军事合作关系,推动建立公平有效的集体安全机制和军事互信机制。中国坚持在相互尊重、平等互利、合作共赢的基础上,深化同各国军队的交流与合作,加强边境地区信任措施合作,推进海上安全对话与合作,参加联合国维和行动、国际反恐合作、护航和救灾行动,举行中外联演联训。

  China’s armed forces have called for, facilitated, and participated in international security cooperation. China has followed the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, conducted all-round military exchanges with other countries, and developed non-aligned and non-confrontational military cooperation not targeting any third party. It has worked to promote the establishment of just and effective collective security mechanisms and military confidence-building mechanisms.

  On the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, and mutually beneficial cooperation, China has increased interactions and cooperation with the armed forces of other countries, and intensified cooperation on confidence-building measures in border areas. China has promoted dialogue and cooperation on maritime security, participated in United Nations peacekeepingmissions, international counter-terrorism cooperation, escort missions and disaster-relief operations, and conducted relevant joint exercises and training with other countries.


  第六,妥善处理分歧矛盾,维护亚太和平稳定的良好环境。亚太地区热点问题多为历史遗留。地区国家应秉持相互尊重、求同存异、和平共处的传统,通过直接谈判与协商妥善处理、和平解决争议问题,不能让老问题损害地区发展与合作,破坏国家间互信。对于领土和海洋权益争议,应在尊重历史事实的基础上,根据公认的国际法和现代海洋法,包括《联合国海洋法公约》所确定的基本原则和法律制度,通过直接相关的主权国家间的对话谈判寻求和平解决。在有关问题解决前,各方应开展对话,寻求合作,管控好局势,防止矛盾激化升级,共同维护地区和平与稳定。

  Sixth, we should properly resolve differences and disputes, and maintain a sound environment of peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Most of the hotspot and sensitive issues in this region have been left over from history. To handle them, the countries in the region should follow the tradition of mutual respect, seeking common ground while reserving differences, and peaceful coexistence, and work to solve disputes properly and peacefully through direct negotiation and consultation. We should not allow old problems to hamper regional development and cooperation, and undermine mutual trust. For disputes over territories and maritime rights and interests, the sovereign states directly involved should respect historical facts and seek a peaceful solution through negotiation and consultation in accordance with the fundamental principles and legal procedures defined by universally recognized international law and modern maritime law, including the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Pending a satisfactory solution to disputes, the parties concerned should engage in dialogue to promote cooperation, manage each situation appropriately and prevent conflicts from escalating, so as to jointly safeguard peace and stability in the region.


  中国致力于维护南海和平稳定的基本方向不会改变,致力于同直接当事国通过友好协商谈判和平解决领土和海洋权益争议的政策主张也不会改变。中国积极推动朝核、阿富汗等地区热点问题和平解决,努力发挥负责任大国作用。

  China is committed to upholding peace and stability in the South China Sea, and working for peaceful solutions to the disputes over territories and maritime rights and interests with the countries directly involved through friendly negotiation and consultation. This commitment remains unchanged. China has actively pushed for peaceful solutions to hotspot issues such as the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula and the Afghanistan issue, and played its due role as a responsible major country.


2018年09月09日

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